While working at REDACTED-2, I reported the following issue.
The part of the REDACTED-A application that is implemented in AngularJS, has a few points for improvement, some easy, others less, and others practically unthinkable in the current state. The hope is that, by making the easy improvements now, the difficult ones over a period of time, the unthinkable will eventually become achievable.
Among the easy improvements we have the reorganization of the code in many independent files. This will then allow us to use modern JS code that we will later compile and optimize in ways that are now practically forbidden to us. (like tree-shaking)
Among the difficult improvements we have the refactoring to extract the web components from the application. Modern JS frameworks, including AngularJS from version 1.5 (we are currently using 1.4), allow you to structure an application in web components, which are then compiled to standard HTML, CSS, and JS.
Among the unthinkable improvements in the current state we have the migration of AngularJS to a framework that is going to last longer and is more modern. In September 2019 there are several top-tier options: Angular 8.2, React 16.9, and Vue 2.6.
How do we start?
The initial modernization plan that I propose contains many parts, all intended to change the application without causing disruption at the production level, and with minimal disruption at the development level.
- Disconnect the Angular app from the Java app
- Extract the Angular app into its separate repository
- Transform the repository from Mercurial to Git
- Format the code according to some standard
- Compile the code to be able to use modern JS
- Separate each functionality in its own file
How do we continue?
Previous changes viewed existing code as a black box, crafted in a certain way to produce an application, and we were only interested in crafting it in a different way to produce the same application.
So now we have an old AngularJS application inside a modern development environment. What we will do successively is to take advantage of this environment to renew the code as well.
- Extract reusable code
- Use Lodash
- Use modern JS (ES6 +)
- Use formal JSON validation
- Extract components and services
- Manage application settings
- Manage application status
- Automate end-to-end tests
- Use GraphQL
And we will do all this little by little, while we continue to develop and maintain the application.
In 2019, I developed the new REDACTED-B and REDACTED-C applications:
- each one with VueJS and the Quasar component library
- each one in its own repository independent from that of the REDACTED-A application
After integrating it into REDACTED-A following the instructions in the tutorial
Migrating an Angular 1.x app to Vue 2.x
A ridiculously detailed and opinionated attempt to let Angular and Vue peacefully live together (if you wanna rock’n’roll)
the REDACTED-C application will remain as a guiding star for the successive and gradual migration of AngularJS.
The integration of REDACTED-C in a tab of the REDACTED-A application was a success, thanks to ocLazyLoad (a tool that we already had installed, but that we used in a sub-optimal way) that allowed us to reduce the boilerplate to unsuspected minimums.
Now, in light of this latest development, I think we can effectively migrate from AngularJS to VueJS after performing the Extract components and services step, for which the tutorial, whose steps I replicated and left “active” in REDACTED-C, marks a sufficiently simple and effective path.
Doing the migration sooner is unthinkable because the current code of the application is not only spaghetti, but also suffers from neglect problems at other levels, first of all the indiscriminate use of the
$scope variable and the
$timeout function. Because of this, it is very difficult to understand the execution context, and which parts of it are related to each sequential chunk of code.
We cannot introduce substantial changes such as those of migration without first putting order. In this phase we are only interested in partitioning the context into relevant blocks for each functionality (from spaghetti code to single concern). With this we will have a first intermediate version of the code, still in AngularJS, that we can easily compare with the old code. When everything works as before, we will migrate the first intermediate version in AngularJS to a second intermediate version in VueJS. It is very important that in this phase we reduce the changes to a minimum (for example, without also changing the names of things, however much it seems necessary), in order to be able to compare as easily as possible with the old code. When everything works as before, we can get down to work with refactoring and rewriting the code.
Important: we can carry out the migration in parts, starting with Extract components and services included, that is, considering first a controller, then another, then a whole application, taking advantage of the fact that AngularJS and VueJS can coexist without problems, as demonstrated by the tutorial.